Naxalism is a left wing extremist movement originated in naxalbari village(therefoe called naxalism) in west bengal in 1967 under leadership of charu mazumdar—thenafter spread in various states.
Mostly concentrated in eastern india-area aka red corridor.
Ideology –it supports maoist ideology -according to it STATE is responsible for all socio-eonomic-political problems.Solution is to throw government through violent revolution by peasants and workers—and create classless society .
Causes for its spread–
1.Land related causes- *poor implementaion of land reforms *poor implemen tation of laws prohibiting transfers of land from tribals to non tribals *acquisition of tribal lands for developemental projects without proper rehabilitaion,forced eviction
2.livilihood related causes- *through forest acts traditional land rights taken away without giving alternatives *food insecurity-lack of job,corruption in PDS
3.social– *social discrimination like denial of dignit,exclusion ,marginalization by upper classes
4.governace deficit– *poor provision of public services-health,educatiion,food-pds *abuse of power,corruption *local government body functioning-inefficient
All these factors lead to alienation of locals from state–and making them victims of naxals. Q. why people move towards naxals— *instead of propogating maoism they attract support of people using slogans-‘jal,jangal,jamin’. –(like Lenin used during russian revolution-‘bread,peace,land’ *jan adlats,sangam by naxals-quick justice to people unlike our lengthy judicial system *if above things not work then use of force/threat all these factors contributed in spread of naxalism.
Reasons for survival of naxalism- due to various reasons like #illeag al activities-mining,drug-funding #inadequate land reforms #inability of state to bring upliftment of deprived sections #naxalist slogan-jal,jangal,jamin #guerilla warfare #disruption in developemental activities by naxals,lacking effective co-ordination beween centre-sate and between states #in struggle between naxals-stae local people get sandwiched-leading to anger against sttate etc.
Challenges in dealing with naxalism? *obtructions by naxalites in developement projects+low investment attraction *social indicators like-health,education are worst in naxal affected areas *guerrila warfare * in struggle between naxals-state local people get sandwiched-leading to anger against state *co-ordination between states-when one state actively taking steps against naxalism neighbouring state is not doing anything-this lead to naxals shifting their base from active to inactive states-and return again when state in inactive against naxals-and therby problem continue.
Government’s approach? approach of govt is two front- A.developement B.security both are interrelated. A.Developement– 1.IAP-integrated action plan started by planning commision to develope public infrastructure+public services 2.surrender cum rehabilitation sscheme for naxals 3.skill developement programmes like ROSHNI,developing educational hub in dantewada 4.PESA-emowering tribalsin field of local self governace through gram sabhas with minimum possible outside interfernce and many other developemental projects B.Security front– 1.formation of CISF,SISFto protect developement projects 2.MHA(ministry of home affairs)creaed multidisciplinarygroup to check funding of naxals 3.various anti-naxal operations loke greenhunt 4.kerala govt checking id cards of migratory labours so as to check immigration of naxals 5.SAMADHAN strategy by govt to effectively deal with naxalism.
Success models-during 1990’s andhra pradesh was on verge of becoming area of revolutionary warfare-such was the spread of naxalism —andhra govt adopted 2 pronged strategy-1.developement2.police 1.police-*GREY HOUNDspecial elite police force was formed *most leaders of naxals either killed/jailed *local vigilante groups were formed to play supportive role to police forces 2.developement-schemes like JANMABHOOMI,JOINT FOREST MGMT-securing traditional land rights and livelihood of local peoples. balanced approach on both front help in curbing naxalism.
#therfore there is need to focus on security as well as aspect of tribal rights in oreder to effectively deal with naxal issue. After independance Nehruvian Panchshil stressed on nedd to recognise tribl rights over land,forest and to allow them to develope along lines of their own genius.—but ironically in realit what happened was completely different-tribal get alienated from their traditional rights,increasing outsde interference–eroding their base of existence.