SYLLABUS-UPSC GS1-INDIAN SOCIETY
WHAT IS IT? refers to the tendency of exploiting socio-religious traditions as medium of politial mobilisation-to promote poli-socio-religious-cultural interest of particular Community. religiousness?-adherence to ones own religion.
FEATURES OF COMMUNALISM? 1.Belief that particular community is different than other communitys 2.each community’s interest are different 3.hatred towards other communitys +mutual distrust in society 4.blind allegiance to ones own community than to nation/society 5.causes are more of Economic/Political than Social
Causes? Communalism is modern phenomenon originated in modern india.we do not find communalism in ancient and medieval ages. Origin and causes of communalism can be studied in 2 phases- 1.PRE INDEPENDANCe 2 . POST INDEPENDANCE 1.PRE INDEPENDANCE CAUSES -*British policy of divide and rule-ex. Bengal partitionn of 1905 another ex. Separate electorate system like for muslim,sikh. * Extremist nationalist like tilak and other used religion to mobilise masses in national freedom struggle but its uninteded impact was it promoted communalism ex.celebrating ganesh & durga festivals-departing muslim masses awayfrom national struggle 2.post independance causes-#communal political parties#minority appeasement policys#politicization of caste and religion#communal appeal during election#economic and educational backwardness among minority ….so on are causes
Consequence of communalism #Ghettoization #politicians diverting peoples attention from economic issues to socio-religious issue-impact on elections #communalism sometimes manifest itself in form of communal riots-economic loss,law&order problem,infringement of fundamental and human rights of common people,low investment in riot area #against constitutional values like FRATERNITY and other.
ex.of communal riots-1.
Partition of India,1947 After partition, millions of population were forced to move from both sides of the border. Hindus in Pakistan and Muslims in India were killed in masses, women were raped, and many children lost their parents. There was hatred everywhere, violence didn’t see anything except bloodshed. Later, it turned in the problem of refugees and their rehabilitation became one of the biggest challenge for independent India.
Anti-Sikh riots, 1984
This is one of the bloodshed in India, where Sikhs in large number were massacred by anti- Sikh mob. This massacre took place in response to the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by his own Sikh body Guard in response to her actions authorising the military operation.
3.Babri masjid demolition in Ayodhya, 1992
4.Ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindu Pundits in 1989
5.Godhra riots 2002 6.Muzaffarnagar violence, 2013
Q. ‘Communalism arises either due to power struggle or relative deprivation. Argue by giving suitable illustrations.(2018)
case study communalism causes are more of POLITICAL/ECONOMIC thean SOCIAL Godhra riots,2002 is example—–before LPG reforms in Gujrat hindus were traders and muslims-factory owner but POST LPG with govt support hindus also opened their factorys—lead to heavy loss to muslims——this created sitution of mutual hatred distrust –and it was in this envi that fire incident in train came as trigger point for riots. educational and economic backwardness is also one of impo cause-feeling of deprivation.
Measures to tackle communalism- as communalism hampers the secular spirit of our country it need to be tackle Immediate measures after communal riots--1.effetive and early rehab,relief of victims 2.secular minded officials in communalism prone area 3.supervising media 4.suppress/ban exremist communal organisations 5.setting special courts for speedy trials-justice to victims 5.setting up peace committes-with participation of all communitys respected members-so as to avoid conflict by peacefull way LONG TERM measures–1.peace commitees as above 2.community policing-help generate feeling of security and early detection +resolution of conflicts 3.supervising media–code of conduct 4.protecting education from communal ideas 5.banning communal org
Conclusion India is country with vast diversity of religion. as All great religions of world teach fraternity,tolerance we need to promote these ideas in form of “sarvdharm sambhav”.